Caused by a failure in some of the body’s cells, cancer is a major public health problem. Find more information on prostate cancer, bladder cancer and neuroendocrine tumors.
Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. Sometimes asymptomatic, they can secrete abnormally high amounts of hormones that affect bodily functions and can cause digestive system problems, weight loss and flushing (redness of the skin and hot flushes). Learn more about this rare endocrine disease, its diagnosis and the different treatment options available.
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents 2-3% of all cancers. Learn more about this disease, its diagnosis and treatments.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. Learn more about the condition, its diagnosis and the different treatment options available.
Medullary Thyroid Cancer
The thyroid is an endocrine organ. It is made of two lobes, connected by the isthmus.
The gland is made up of follicular cells, arranged in a spherical manner (follicles) that are filled with a substance called colloid.
The thyroid hormones (thyroxine [T4] and 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine [T3]) are synthesised by the follicular cells and controlled by thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted from the anterior pituitary in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone secreted by the hypothalamus.
T3/T4 activate the metabolism of many cells in the body, controlling heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and basal metabolic rate.
C-cells are found in the interstitium surrounding the follicles and secrete calcitonin. Calcitonin is involved in regulating the levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood.
Medullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC) originates from C-cells and is an orphan disease. MTC can be inherited / hereditary (25% of cases) or sporadic / spontaneous (75% of cases).
The cause of most MTCs is a gene mutation (a change in genetic or DNA sequence) in the RET proto
oncogene. This leads to abnormal proliferation of C cells, and, in many cases, subsequent development of MTC.
The primary treatment for MTC is surgery to completely remove the thyroid (total thyroidectomy).
Once the disease is more advanced and/or with distant metastasis, the patient could be eligible to systemic treatment with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Learn more about this disease, its diagnosis and treatments.